Russian Medical Inquiry
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Russian Medical Review

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DOI: 10.32364/2587-6821-2020-4-10-625-631

S.V. Murakov1, E.V. Vladimirova1, V.P. Kovalyk1, Y.A. Markova1,
A.A. Vladimirov 2, U.A. Stromskaya3, D.I. Makeeva4, S.A. Popkov 3

1Academy of Postgraduate Education of the Federal Scientific and Clinical Center of the Federal Medical Biological Agency of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russian Federation

2I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Moscow, Russian Federation

3A.I. Evdokimov Moscow University of Medicine & Dentistry, Moscow, Russian Federation

4N.A. Semashko Clinical Hospital “RZD-Medicine”, Moscow, Russian Federation

During the reproductive age, 75% of women experience at least one episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and 40–50% of women experience two or more episodes. Recurrent VVC is referred to as at least four episodes of the disease within a 12-month period. The aim of this paper is to review the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatment for VVC. Both domestic and foreign published data are analyzed. It is now recognized that urogenital disorders and systemic comorbidities are the key predisposing factors to recurrent VVC. Other risk factors include the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppressants, and hormone replacement therapy, endocrine disorders, and intestinal Candida persistence. Intravaginal medications are the preferred treatment for VVC. A 6-month maintenance therapy reduces the rate of VVC recurrences by 90%. Further studies on the etiopathogenesis of recurrent VVC will improve treatment efficacy.

Keywords: vulvovaginal candidiasis, recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, Candida albicans, non-albicans Candida, Candida spp., Lactobacilli, vaginal colonization resistance.

For citation: Murakov S.V., Vladimirova E.V., Kovalyk V.P. et al. State-of-the-art of vulvovaginal candidiasis: etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Russian Medical Inquiry. 2020;4(10):625–631. DOI: 10.32364/2587-6821-2020-4-10-625-631.



About the authors:

Stanislav V. Murakov — Doct. of Sci. (Med.), associate professor of the Department of Dermatovenerology & Cosmetology, Academy of Postgraduate Education of the Federal Scientific and Clinical Center of the Federal Medical Biological Agency of Russian Federation; 28, Orekhovyy blvd., Moscow, 115682, Russian Federation; ORCID iD 0000-0003-4330-2570.

Elena V. Vladimirova — Cand. of Sci. (Med.), Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Dermatovenerology & Cosmetology, Academy of Postgraduate Education of the Federal Scientific and Clinical Center of the Federal Medical Biological Agency of Russian Federation; 28, Orekhovyy blvd., Moscow, 115682, Russian Federation; ORCID iD 0000-0002-4123-4204.

Vladimir P. Kovalyk — Cand. of Sci. (Med.), Associate Professor, professor of the Department of Dermatovenerology & Cosmetology, Academy of Postgraduate Education of the Federal Scientific and Clinical Center of the Federal Medical Biological Agency of Russian Federation; 28, Orekhovyy blvd., Moscow, 115682, Russian Federation; ORCID iD 0000-0002-0453-2771.

Yuliya A. Markova — Cand. of Sci. (Med.), associate professor of the Department of Dermatovenerology & Cosmetology, Academy of Postgraduate Education of the Federal Scientific and Clinical Center of the Federal Medical Biological Agency of Russian Federation; 28, Orekhovyy blvd., Moscow, 115682, Russian Federation; ORCID iD 0000-0002-6271-9403.

Artem A. Vladimirov — student, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University); 8 Build. 2, Trubetskaya str., Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation; ORCID iD 0000-0002-3943-8099.

Ul’ayna A. Stromskaya — student, A.I. Evdokimov Moscow University of Medicine & Dentistry; 20/1, Delegatskaya str., Moscow, 127473, Russian Federation; ORCID iD 0000-0002-4040-9658.

Dar’ya I. Makeeva — dermatovenerologist, N.A. Semashko Clinical Hospital “RZD-Medicine”; 23-1, Stavropol’skaya str., Moscow, 109386, Russian Federation; ORCID iD 0000-0003-3479-1368.

Sergey A. Popkov — Doct. of Sci. (Med.), Professor, professor of the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology of the Medical Faculty, A.I. Evdokimov Moscow University of Medicine & Dentistry; 20/1, Delegatskaya str., Moscow, 127473, Russian Federation; ORCID iD 0000-0003-2920-2784.

Contact information: Stanislav V. Murakov, e-mail: dr.stanislav@list.ru. Financial Disclosure: no authors have a financial or property interest in any material or method mentioned. There is no conflict of interests. Received 10.09.2020, revised 22.09.2020, accepted 01.10.2020.

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